communication disorders

learn more about communication disorders:

Introduction

Hello. Today, we have decided to talk to you about one of the most common disorders in the field of people’s behavior (which, of course, is also common among children). All of us may have dealt with a child not communicating well with people or the environment around him. It is possible that we ourselves had such a problem and complication in our childhood and were treated by doctors and specialists. There is nothing wrong with someone suffering from communication disorders, because this problem is not his own fault, but It can be said that in most cases this problem is hereditary.

To define it, we must say that this disorder is directly related to the way the child communicates with the surrounding environment through language communication (speech) or any other reaction to visual or auditory stimuli. Join us to talk about the symptoms and characteristics of this type of disorder, as well as ways to identify people with it, as well as its common treatment methods.

What are communication disorders?

Communication disorders are actually a type of disability in which the affected person either stutters or even makes mistakes in using vocabulary and words in his language and speech to communicate with others. Of course, it should be noted that this disease is not only related to language and this disorder can include other disorders such as vision, hearing and other related disorders.

What are the types of communication disorders?

Communication disorders that are related to speech are usually more common and well-known than other communication disorders. Accordingly, speech disorders are classified in different ways.

For example, expressive language disorder: in fact, this type of disorder makes it difficult for a person to speak.

Or mixed language disorder (expressive-receptive) which makes it difficult to understand language and speak.

There are also speech disorders (speech disorders) that affect a person’s speaking and include the following:

  • Speech counting disorders: changing and substituting (or shifting) words in a way that makes it harder for the audience to understand the message.
  • Speech eloquent disorders: In this type of disorder, the speed or rhythm of speech is abnormal when speaking.
  • Voice disorders: In this type of voice pitch disorder, the volume of the voice or the length of speech by the affected person is abnormal.

Another type of communication disorders are language disorders that affect how people use speech or writing. For this reason, they are also called language structure disorders that affect the following:

  • Phonetics or phonology that affects the sounds that make up language and speech systems.
  • Morphology, that is, mere morphology or word construction, which defines the structure and construction of the word.
  • Syntax or the same syntax: which defines the way and how to create sentences.
  • Language content disorders that affect the meaning. Like the meaning of words and sentences
  • Functional language disorders that affect the use of appropriate social messages
  • Hearing disorders that make it difficult and disrupt the ability to use speech or language. Usually, people who have hearing impairment are called deaf or deaf. Deaf people are not able to use their hearing power as the main source of communication, and people who are hard of hearing and can hardly hear some sounds can only use a small amount of They can use their hearing power to communicate.
  • Central processing disorders: This disorder affects how a person analyzes and uses auditory signals.

Factors that cause communication disorders:

In many cases, the main reasons for the occurrence of communication disorders are not clear, however, according to the following, what is known or has a problem in most cases of communication disorders or acquired complications.

  • Abnormal growth and development of the brain
  • Exposure to drugs, before birth
  • Sugar lip, cleft palate or cleft lip
  • Genetic and hereditary factors
  • Traumatic brain injuries
  • Neurological disorders and hearing disorders
  • Damage to the vocal cords
  • Mental disorders
  • Emotional, mental and developmental disorders
  • Stroke
  • Autism
  • Presence of tumor in areas and parts of the brain that are responsible for communication.

According to the estimates and research results, it is estimated that one out of every 10 Americans (in all ages, races and genders) suffers from one of the types of communication disorders in their life. In this country, there are approximately 6 million children under the age of 18 who have a speech or language disorder.

People who are prone to suffering from this abnormality and disorder:

Communication disorders, as we said, are more common among children. According to the report of the National Institute of Deafness and Communication Disorders of America, about 8 to 9% of children have a voice disorder in speech. This rate reaches 5% among children in the first grade. This shows that a part of children with in the same years before the start of school, they have been treated correctly and have completely recovered. This issue shows the importance of timely measures in identifying and treating this abnormality.

Statistics and number of sufferers of this disorder

It is true that we said that this disorder is more common among children, but it must be said that this disorder is also sometimes observed among adults. According to the statistics taken in the United States of America, about 7.5 million people have problems and disorders in using their voice. In addition, there are about 6 to 8 million other people who suffer from some language disorders and have problems.

According to statistical findings, patients with brain injuries are more prone to this disorder than others. This is despite the fact that many other complications arise spontaneously, such as aphasia, which means the inability of a person to use or understand language.

In the United States, approximately one million people suffer from this condition. Language delay is one of the most common developmental delays in human childhood and adolescence, and approximately 7% of 5-year-old children suffer from serious speech and expression problems. to do The rate of speech disorders in 5- and 6-year-old children is higher than in elementary school children. It is necessary for children to master many aspects of language in order to communicate effectively and appropriately (such as: the ability to understand and express ideas and wishes, use words and phrases, as well as speaking and expressing them in their local dialect). It is also good to know that language disorders include vision problems and mixed expressive-perceptual problems.

What are the signs and symptoms of communication disorders?

Children with expressive language deficits may speak vaguely when retelling a story or memory, and for example, instead of naming a specific object or some objects, they use the word “thing” or something similar. And it is obvious for children with this disorder, their significant and visible damage in development is proportional to their expressive language age, which causes the use of sign language or verbal and spoken language much less than the level that according to the capacity of the child’s non-verbal intelligence. It is significant

When the child finally opens his tongue and starts saying words, his language problems and deficiencies are gradually revealed. Usually, the pronunciation of words is immature and there are many pronunciation mistakes on his part.

Signs and symptoms of communication disorders depend on the type of disorder and its cause, which can include the following:

  • Repetitive sounds
  • Incorrect use of words
  • Inability to communicate in a way that is understandable
  • Inability to understand messages
  • Diagnosis of communication disorders and complications

In order to correctly diagnose communication disorders, it may sometimes require the presence of several specialists. Neurologists and language-speech neurologists, as well as family experts, may perform the tests and tests in this way. Usually, these tests are performed by the therapy team and are as follows:

  • Full physical health test
  • Psychometry of perceptual, reasoning and thinking skills
  • Linguistic and speaking tests
  • MRI of the brain (MRI imaging)
  • CT scan of the brain and skull
  • Psychiatric evaluations

Treatment of communication disorders and its methods:

The main reason for the many recommendations and emphasis on early speech and language treatment for children is to guide them and their parents and other family members to produce more meaningful language. In direct intervention therapy, a speech and language pathologist works directly with the child.

In mediated interventions, the speech and language specialist teaches the teacher or the trainer (whether the teacher or his parents) the techniques and principles of language therapy, and this type of interventions and therapeutic methods also have a good effect on the patient. We must pay attention to the important point that many communication disorders of children can be examined and treated at the same childhood age, and if not treated, this complication and problems will continue until adulthood. Treatments that are performed under the supervision of a psychiatric specialist and with the full cooperation of family members are usually more effective.

Especially in connection with children’s communication disorders, the role of the family in their treatment is much more colorful than others. Because large parts of the special exercises that create opportunities for the child to communicate with others should be done at home and by his family members.

Most of the time, speech therapy methods are used for those suffering from this disorder. Rarely, drug treatments are prescribed unless it is in cases where the root of the disorder is the presence of infections in the person’s body. The type of speech therapy used also depends on the level and severity of the disorder. Regarding children with this disorder, the best decision is to start treatment at a young age and without delay

A psychoanalyst and speech-language pathologist will be able to identify the patient’s strengths and be effective in improving them. Also, in the treatment process, we try to identify the weak points and use useful and remedial techniques to improve and strengthen weak skills. Alternative options such as sign language can also be taught to the patient. What will greatly help the group therapy in the success of the methods used is the participation of the family in the treatment of the patient.

Prevention of communication disorders

Unfortunately, there are no specific ways to prevent communication disorders. Of course, avoiding some known brain risks, such as anything that causes brain injuries, or taking advantage of things that can be effective in preventing brain strokes, such as a healthy lifestyle, can be useful. However, it must be admitted that many communication and speech disorders occur without a specific reason. When we suspect that our children have communication disorders, it is better to immediately discuss the issue with a specialist doctor for diagnosis and not to waste time in any way.

Final

Communication disorders are different from mild and very small delays in language learning and expression, phonetic and dialectal disorders, and stuttering, which may even subside by themselves, although sometimes they continue until adolescence and even young adulthood.

There are many factors that can affect the rate of change and recovery of the patient, such as the severity or the cause of the disorder. In the case of children, timely action in the diagnosis of the disorder and comprehensive support of parents, teachers, and speech and language specialists can play a very useful role. Be In the case of adults with this disorder, self-motivation can play an important role in their treatment.

 

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