bipolar disorder

Introduction:

Hello, if you have read our previous articles, you must have become familiar with some examples of common psychological disorders of people that we talked about earlier. Disorders such as anxiety, phobia, bulimia nervosa, panic disorder and communication disorders.

“You have heard the name of being bipolar by now. You may have limited information in this field or, like many other people, you may not have any knowledge and awareness of this condition and mental illness.

If we want to define bipolar disorder for you, we must say that it is a type of mental illness in which a person is placed between states of severe depression as well as extreme mania and euphoria. In the distance between these two states, there is the normal state of a person’s life.

What is bipolar disorder?

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a group of disorders associated with periods of very high energy, also known as manic episodes. In this disease, we often see abnormal changes in the patient’s mood, mood, and energy, which manifests itself in the form of excessive activity and inability to perform daily tasks.

The disability that we talked about can be so severe that it seriously damages the person’s relationships, job, or even performance in school or university, and unfortunately, in some cases, he commits suicide.

There are different types of bipolar disorder in men and women and it is divided into two main types, bipolar disorder type 1 and bipolar disorder type 2.

Bipolar disorder type 1 refers to a condition in which the patient experiences and engages in a full mania period for a week. Sometimes, in this situation, the patient may or may not experience the disease. Sometimes the symptoms of mania may be so severe that it is necessary to admit the person to a mental hospital.

But what is bipolar disorder type 2? A milder state is called “hypomania”. If a person has had a period of hypomania in the past or currently (at least this period must have lasted for 4 consecutive days), and now (or in the past) a period If he experiences severe depression, then we say that such a person has type 2 bipolar disorder.

There is a type of disorder similar to type 2, which is called mood or periodic disorder, and it consists of frequent changes in mood and states of a person from hypomania to depression during at least two years, which occurs in adults.

The frequency of occurrence of this disorder in bipolar women and men is almost equal and the average age of its onset is estimated to be 25 years old. Or even at the end of life and old age, its symptoms have appeared.

Bipolar disorder, as psychiatrists say, belongs to the group of chronic diseases, and usually, the affected person must be under the supervision of a doctor until the end of his life. According to official statistics, more than 90% of those who have had a manic episode, definitely they will experience periods of mania and depression again.

What does it mean to be bipolar?

People with bipolar disorder usually describe mania as “extreme euphoria. In a way that the person feels like the world is under their feet and they think they have everything under control. However, in most cases, the person with mania is In addition, this group of people suddenly feel high self-confidence, suffer from lack of sleep or even insomnia, and become talkative and easily distracted. And that’s why they engage in high-risk actions (such as participating in gambling, reckless and careless purchases, reckless sex).

The commonality between hypomania and mania (their similarity) is that in both cases, others easily notice the changes in the person’s mood and performance, but this period is not so severe that it causes a serious disturbance in social behavior or The professional and academic performance of the individual can be improved and it can even be said that he will not need to be admitted to the hospital. During a manic period, a person may even take on important work projects, and regardless of their level of talent or experience and expertise, they may feel that they can handle them.

Having high self-confidence and not needing to sleep (period of insomnia even for several days) is one of the characteristic features of manic period. During this period, a person may not sleep for several days and at the same time not feel tired at all. In most cases, the mind of a manic person becomes hyperactive and acts quickly, and before his mind wants to express something, it acts suddenly, that is why this group of people continuously and continuously from one subject to another. They leave and their words are not coherent. During this period, if someone wants to interrupt the narcissist’s words or give an opinion in the middle of his talk, he will often face his sharp and aggressive reactions.

Children who are at risk of bipolar disorder:

The chain of growth and development of children who are at risk of suffering from bipolar disorder (because one of their parents has this disorder) begins with signs and symptoms that are not specific to this disease in any way. The condition of this group of children usually begins with a mild mood disorder and progresses to a major and severe depressive disorder in adolescence, and in the middle of adolescence or when entering adulthood, complete bipolar disorder with symptoms such as a manic episode. Or hypomania, or even a psychotic episode following a depressive episode.

One of the prominent features among bipolar disorder sufferers is that they never accept their illness and show resistance to treatment. One of the very bad and sad side effects of this disease is the high rate of suicide among its sufferers. Approximately, the suicide rate among those suffering from bipolar disorder and mental illness is 15 times higher than other people and the general population. Usually, the presence of bipolar disorder in a person is not easily recognized or mistaken for other disorders. Be taken Sometimes, it may take several years for this disorder to be diagnosed in a person, so that they can finally receive appropriate treatment.

If the mentioned signs and symptoms are seen in a person, it is better to convince him to see a psychiatrist or psychologist. After examining the bipolar personality and its signs and symptoms in the person, the doctor determines the type and method of appropriate treatment and in the first step tries to prevent the exacerbation of the symptoms by using appropriate treatment methods.

Symptoms of bipolar disorder and ways to diagnose it:

As we mentioned in the above lines some behavioral symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder (such as: manic period with excessive intoxication, mood swings on most days of the week and for at least one week, abnormal increase in activities and double energy), we will tell you some other symptoms of people suffering from this condition below:

  • Overconfidence or exaggeration of one’s abilities and strength
  • A sharp reduction in the need for sleep or even insomnia for several days
  • Excessive talkativeness and the need to talk
  • An influx of new ideas or thoughts
  • Distractions
  • Increasing goal setting (for example, in academic or work projects) and along with that aimless activities
  • Participating in activities that have a high probability of failure or negative consequences (such as gambling, financial investments, reckless sex)

In addition to the above, mood disorders and difficulty in communicating with others, serious problems in a person’s career or education, and self-harm (self-mutilation and suicide) are other symptoms. Bipolar disorder in humans.

In bipolar disorder, after passing through the manic period, we face a period of acute and severe depression in the person. In such a way that he loses his motivation and will to do normal tasks and suffers from a kind of despair, lack of motivation and defeated spirit. This period can last for at least two weeks. During this period, the following signs and symptoms are observed in people:

  • During depression, a person feels discomfort, anxiety and stress or emptiness most days of the week.
  • During this period, a person feels unmotivated and defeated every day.
  • During these days, a person experiences excessive weight gain or loss.
  • Insomnia or even oversleeping is also a special symptom in this period.
  • Visible restlessness or slowing down (psychological and motor slowing down)
  • During depression, a person often feels extremely tired and low energy every day
  • A person suffering from bipolar disorder during this period usually has “torment of conscience” or feelings of emptiness, futility and worthlessness.
  • Lack of concentration and inability to make decisions is also very common in this period
  • The person has negative thoughts and always thinks about suicide and often commits suicide.

As we said, severe periods of mania or depression may also include psychotic symptoms. Among the common symptoms of this case, we can mention hallucinations and hearing, seeing, or seeing things that are not real. Some people with bipolar disorder talk about suicide and think about it, and often commit suicide. Anyone who is thinking about suicide should be immediately monitored by a mental health professional. Talking about suicide should be taken seriously because the risk of suicide is very serious during the first period of the disease. Timely diagnosis of bipolar disorder and identification of the best ways to control it will be very effective in reducing the risk of death due to suicide.

What are the causes of bipolar disorder?

Despite the fact that a lot of research has been done by scientists and experts in this field to find the causes of bipolar disorder, but a single and main reason has not been announced by them yet. In any case, what is known is that several reasons can contribute to the occurrence of this disorder.

Genetics and heredity can play an important role in this field as well as other psychological disorders. Family history is one of the strongest and main causes of bipolar disorders. According to the researches, the probability of getting this disorder among the adult relatives of people who have type 1 and 2 of this disorder is almost 10 times higher than other people in the society. However, doctors and scientists have not yet discovered any specific gene in this regard. And have not been identified, and they give the possibility that like many other mental disorders, several genes are involved in this field, each of which can have a small effect.

According to research and scientific and experimental findings, it has been proven that the frequency of mental disorders, anxiety and mental stress in families with a person with bipolar disorder is much higher than in the normal population. Also, based on the results of research conducted on twins Homosexuals who have been diagnosed with this disorder have found that apart from genes and heredity, some environmental factors such as stressful events also play an important role in bipolar disorder. Accordingly, there is also a theory that believes that the combination of a number of genes with environmental factors can play a serious role in the occurrence of this disorder.

According to research and scientific and experimental findings, it has been proven that the frequency of mental disorders, anxiety and mental stress in families with a person with bipolar disorder is much higher than in the normal population. Also, based on the results of research conducted on twins Homosexuals who have been diagnosed with this disorder have found that apart from genes and heredity, some environmental factors such as stressful events also play an important role in bipolar disorder. Accordingly, there is also a theory that believes that the combination of a number of genes with environmental factors can play a serious role in the occurrence of this disorder.

Treatment of bipolar disorder:

Contrary to popular opinion, bipolar disorder can be treated, and the sooner the treatment starts, the more likely it is to reduce the intensity and frequency of manic and depressive episodes. Since bipolar disorder affects a person’s life almost throughout his life, the treatment will be long-term and will not only relieve the symptoms but also try to prevent the exacerbation and increase of the symptoms. Most people who suffer from bipolar disorder will stabilize in terms of mood swings and related symptoms after some time.

Contrary to popular opinion, bipolar disorder can be treated, and the sooner the treatment starts, the more likely it is to reduce the intensity and frequency of manic and depressive episodes. Since bipolar disorder affects a person’s life almost throughout his life, the treatment will be long-term and will not only relieve the symptoms but also try to prevent the exacerbation and increase of the symptoms. Most people who suffer from bipolar disorder will stabilize in terms of mood swings and related symptoms after some time.

The experiences of doctors in this field show that writing and recording these cases by the patient helps him and his family members to better understand the disease and manage it. In this way, mood and behavioral changes can be noticed in time so that the full episode can be prevented somehow. During the course of treatment, these mood changes often occur in the patient, even when there is no obstacle in the way of treatment. When the patient or his family members notice mood changes in him, they should immediately report the issue to the doctor so that a suitable treatment plan can be set up with the new conditions.

It is always recommended that patients with bipolar disorder go to a psychiatrist for treatment. Unfortunately, it has sometimes been observed that general doctors have also prescribed psychotropic drugs to patients in order to reduce their depression symptoms. Usually, psychiatrists use mood stabilizers such as lithium, which is the most well-known drug in this field, to control manic episodes.

Among other mood-stabilizing drugs, we can mention lamotrigine, valproic acid, divalproex sodium, and carbamazepine, which also have anticonvulsant properties. Of course, it is possible that the psychiatrist may combine anticonvulsant drugs with lithium and prescribe them to the patient in order to achieve the best treatment results. Doctors also use antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone to control the symptoms of mania and depression in patients with bipolar disorder, which stabilize the patient’s mental state.

Most psychiatrists who treat bipolar patients prefer to change the treatment plan several times during the course of the illness in order to properly manage the disorder. Any change in the treatment method or even the dose of the drug should be with the psychiatrist’s opinion. The drugs mentioned above, like other chemical drugs used in medicine, may have side effects for the patient, such as: sleep disorder, increased sleep, decreased libido, obesity or weight loss, nausea and tremors. Anxiety and hair loss, movement disorders or dry mouth.

It is better for the patient or her relatives to inform the psychiatrist about the side effects of the prescribed drugs on the patient and make any changes in the treatment based on her opinion.

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